八門五步 A Discussion of Eight-Gate Jin (Ba Men Jin)


學拳架是太極拳入門的方法,就如我們初上學時學寫天、地、牛、羊等生字。我們上學不是單為了學生字,目標是更有效率的溝通,學生字只是最初步的入門方法而已。學識了拳架的招式線路,便須進一步了解太極拳的運動模式,不往這條路走,得到的只是一個空架子,不能啟動身體內部機能而產生另外一種能量。首先,我們要明白甚麼是「八門五步」。

Learning the form is an entry way into Taijiquan. It is like learning vocabulary when we first go to school. However,we go to school not only to learn vocabulary, but also to learn how to communicate more effectively. Studying vocabulary is really just the first step. Similarly, once you learn the movements and the techniques in the form, you must further comprehend the principles and theories of the movements. If you don’t follow this path, what you acquire is simply an empty frame, and you’ll never be able to transform your internal ability into a new form of energy. But first we must understand what is “Eight Gates and Five Steps.”

八門五步又稱為十三勢是太極最重要的內容。不練八門五步,就永遠進不了太極拳的門。我們練架子是要求在我們在自己平衡的範圍內形成一立體圓圈。前輩們把八門說成四正及四隅:掤、履、擠、按、採、列、肘、靠。其實這名稱有兩種意義,第一是表示方向位置,其次是太極拳勁路的稱號。二者本是同一樣的東西,因為練太極拳時身體是要保持一個立体圓圈,這個圓體一動,八個不同方位就產生不同方向的勁,總稱八門勁。這勁是由圓圈中心擴張旋轉產生,并不是由手、腿或身體某部份單獨發動。如果身體某部份單獨發力,便會產生直勁,遇到阻礙便變成頂勁,違反拳理。以另外一種方式去解釋八門勁:上、下、前、後、左、右、裏、外代表一個整圓,加上螺旋及開合此二種發動基礎便成八門勁。自己的圈做得完滿,勁便會均衡的滿佈全身,意念一動,開便是放大,合即是縮小。開中有合,合中有開,外圍開即是內圍合,外合即是內開,所有動作是以螺旋方式放大縮小,一個立體滾動的圓球便產生。這就是八門勁產生的基礎。

“Eight Gates and Five Steps,” also referred to as “The Thirteen Postures,” is an important aspect of Taijiquan. One can never enter the door of Taijiquan if one does not practice the “Eight Gates and Five Steps.” During form practice, we are required to become a three-dimensional circle without losing our balance. The elders of the Art defined “Eight Gates” as the “Four Cardinals” and “Four Corners,” i.e., ward off, roll back, squeeze, press, pluck, split, elbow, and lean (Peng, Lu, Ji, An, Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). In reality, these terms have two kinds of meaning. First, the direction of the Jin is indicated, Second, these are the names of the “power” (Jin) used in Taijiquan. Nonetheless, these two meanings are really talking about the same thing. During form practice, the body has to maintain a three-dimensional spherical structure. Once this sphere moves, the eight different directions will generate eight different directional Taiji Jin, collectively call the “Eight-Gate Jin.” This Jin comes from the center of the sphere and expands and spirals outward, and does not initiate from the hands, legs, or other body parts independently. If any part of the body initiates the force separately, the Jin will travel in a straight line, and when it encounters resistance it becomes a “directly opposing” (ding) Jin. This is against Taijiquan principles. Another way to explain “Eight-Gate Jin” is that it consists of: up, down, front, back, left, right, internal, external, which represents a perfect sphere. When using the two fundamental ways of power generation - spiral and open/close - it becomes the “Eight-Gate Jin.” If the sphere is formed uniformly, the Jin will distribute evenly throughout the entire body. Once the intent arrives, open becomes expansion, and close becomes contraction. There will also close within open, and open within close. The external opening is the same as internal closing, and external

closing is the same as internal opening. Every movement involves expanding and contracting in a spiral fashion, resulting in a sphere rolling around. This is the foundation in the generation of “Eight-Gate Jin.”

前輩們對八門勁有自己的解說,有些針對方位,有些則將重點放在勁的方向上,但都沒有將八門勁重點說清楚,把 後人弄得胡塗了。再簡單一點解說:太極拳總勁就是掤勁,是身體重量放到地上反彈到全身的勁,其他七門勁是身 體圓球轉動時不同方位產生的掤勁。有這樣的勁才是一動無有不動,才可以支撐八面。

Elders of the Art had their own individual interpretation of the “Eight-Gate Jin.” Some put the emphasis on body positions; others focused more on the directionality of the Jin. Unfortunately, none really articulated the focus of “Eight-Gate Jin,” which has caused a lot of confusion for us followers. To explain in simpler terms, the total Jin of Taijiquan is “ward off” (Peng) Jin, which comes from the rebounding Jin produced by release of the body weight on the ground. The remaining Seven Gate Jin can be described as the Peng Jin produced by the sphere of the body rotating in different directions. Having this Jin means that “when one part moves, all parts are moving,” so that one can control and counter all directions.

五步,是左、顧、右、盼、中定。如立身正中,左右就是前方左、右各45度。顧、盼則是後面左右各45度。中是自已脊椎,分佈就如骰子上的五點。我們形成的立體圈是活的,可前後左右移動。但無論怎樣動,中正平衡不能失。脊椎垂直向下沉,尾閭骨一段是要時常保持中正,是不能搖動的,中正一去,人便不能保持平衡。所以一定要保持 虛領頂勁與氣沉丹田使脊骨產生對拉感覺而保持中正。用腳前後左右移動是令身體之立體圈移動之方法。腳掌放在 地上,無論怎樣動著力點只有一點,而且這點是不停在腳掌間交替轉換,如荷葉凝珠。人像一個皮球在地上滾動,滾動點只是一個不停轉換的小著力點。如何轉換著力點,就看外來推動力之來向而相應相隨。我們的身體并不是皮球,要練成皮球之效應,便非下苦功不可了。不單走架如此,發勁亦要是如此,發勁時腳一蹬實便是用力,違反拳理,地心吸力也不能用上。在拳論中清楚述明 “雙重”是病,解決方法是要改善腰腿的運動模式,讓著力點不停的轉換。

“Five Step” is left, gaze, right, glance, and center. Starting with the center, our spine, left and right are the front left and right 45 degree corners; and gaze and glance refer to the rear left and right 45 degree corners. This pattern is like the number five on the face of a dice. The three-dimensional circle we form with our body is alive, and can move left and right. But regardless of how we move, we must not lose our central equilibrium. The spine should be erect and sink down, while the tail bone section remains vertical and centered, and does not sway. Once the center is gone, equilibrium cannot be maintained. Therefore, one must always gently suspend the head (xū lǐng dǐng jìn) and sink the Qi to Dantian (qì chén dāntián), so the spine will have a feeling of an up-and-down counter pull and thus maintain erectness. Using the legs to move forward, backward, left and right is a way for the body to rotate and turn in different directions. When you put the soles of your feet on the ground, no matter how you move, your body weight should really rest on only a single point. Furthermore, this point should be constantly switching between the soles of the two feet much like a droplet of water rolling on the surface of a Chinese lotus leaf. This way, you are moving like a ball rolling on the ground with the point of contact being a small point that is constantly changing. How this point changes will depend on how one follows and responds to incoming force. However, we must recognize that our

body is not really a ball, so to train our body to behave like a ball will take a lot of time and effort. This way of moving is not just used in form practice, but should also be used for fajin (power emission). If you push down solidly on your legs, you are using brute force, which is against Taijiquan principles, and you would not be able to utilize gravity. In the Taijiquan Treatise, this “double-weightiness” is clearly described as a “sickness.” To overcome this problem, one has to improve the way one uses the waist and legs so that the contact point of the body weight keeps changing.

談到著力點,就不能不談『根』。太極拳的「根」是活的,并不完全在腳,而可以在頭頂,由頭頂虛領而達至平衡。試看一個不倒翁,無論怎樣推它,它總能彈回原狀,因為它的底是圓的,著力點可順外力而轉換,而身體(脊骨)及頭是一直保持垂直的。如果把不倒翁的頸扭斷,讓頭垂在一邊。效果便完全不同。不倒翁也會倒下來了。外家拳術常常強調落地生根之馬步,但這只是向單方面之以力迎力之訓練而已。以力迎力是“頂”,不是太極拳所追求的。這些訓練在頂力的接觸面上很強,但其他三方面卻是不堪一擊的,輕輕一推便會令其失去平衡。因為用力,這種馬步的根亦容易浮起。太極高手只要利用對方身體小小之反彈力,便能將其根浮起。相反地,他自身著地點不停轉換,根是活的,加之飄盪的頭頂,根本無根可尋,無根可拔。

Speaking of the contact point of body weight, we cannot ignore the discussion of “rooting.” The “root” in Taijiquan is alive and does not necessarily reside entirely in the legs. It could be located at the top of your head, i.e., you can maintain balance by gently lifting up the top of your head. Let’s look at a bop bag. No matter how you push it, it always bounces back. This is because its bottom is round and the contact point of force can change according to the external push. Its body (its “spine”) and head remain vertical and erect. If you break the neck of the bop bag and let its head hang to one side, this will produce a completely different effect. The bop bag will fall down! In external martial arts, the focus is often on developing a horse stance that is deeply rooted down. However, this is

just a practice of using force against force unilaterally. Using force against force is “to oppose forcefully,” which is not sought in Taijiquan. This external practice may be very powerful at the point of contact, but the other directions are so weak that even a slight push will cause one to lose balance. Because one uses force, this type of horse stance is very easily uprooted. A skillful Taijiquan practitioner will take advantage of the slight rebounding force of his opponent’s body to easily uproot him. Meanwhile, the point of contact of his body weight keeps changing so his root is alive. Furthermore, if the top of his head remains buoyant, his root will be hidden and he can never be

uprooted.

By Patrick SW CHAN (陳少華)

Translated by Dominic and Theresa Chan

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